Biopesticides are derivatives of plants, microorganisms and insects. Substances from plants and animals have been used to manage diseases in crops, animals and humans. Reliance on nature to heal nature is a practice for many people around the world. Use of natural products was overtaken by synthetic chemicals due to their efficacy, reliability and quick knockdown effect. However, synthetic pesticides have become a health hazard for humans and the environment due to their toxicity and pollution. Biopesticides are potential alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Sources of biopesticides are readily available, easily biodegradable, exhibit various modes of action, are less expensive and have low toxicity to humans and non-target organisms. Neem, pyrethrum, cotton and tobacco are known sources of botanical pesticides and have already been commercialized. Other sources of botanical pesticides include garlic, euphorbia, citrus, pepper among others. Species of Trichoderma, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Beauveria have been commercialized as microbial pesticides. Biopesticides are however faced with challenges of formulation, registration, commercialization, acceptance and adoption. This paper describes several aspects of biopesticide development, including but not limited to, their sources, production, formulation, commercialization, efficacy and role in sustainable agriculture. Keywords Biopesticides, Conservation Agriculture, Integrated Pest Management, Environmental Safety
This study was conducted by Lengai, Geraldin M. W.; Muthomi and James W.